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Spain officially the Kingdomof Spain. Spain is a country in Southwestern Europe with some pockets ofterritory across the Strait of Gibraltar and the Atlantic Ocean. Its continentalEuropean territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula. Its territory alsoincludes two archipelagos:
The Canary Islands off the coastof North Africa, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The Africanenclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the onlyEuropean country to have a physical border with an African country (Morocco).Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are also part of Spanish territory.The country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the MediterraneanSea; to the north and northeast by France, Andorra, and the Bay of Biscay andto the west and northwest by Portugal and the Atlantic Ocean respectively.
With an area of 505,990 km2(195,360 sq. mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largestcountry in Western Europe and the European Union, and the fourth-largestcountry by area on the European continent. With a population exceeding 47.3million, Spain is the sixth-most populous country in Europe, and thefourth-most populous country in the European Union. Spain's capital and largestcity is Madrid other major urban areas include Barcelona, Valencia, Seville,Zaragoza, Malaga, and Bilbao.
Modern humans first arrived inthe Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along withancient Phoenician, Greek, Celtic and Carthaginian settlements developed on thepeninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BC, after which the regionwas named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Sp(a)n or Spania.
At the end of the Western RomanEmpire, Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invadedthe Iberian Peninsula and established relatively independent realms in itswestern provinces. One of them, the Visigoths, forcibly integrated allremaining independent territories in the peninsula, including the Byzantineprovince of Spania, into the Visigothic Kingdom.